Some study languages and learn them but you can understand languages if you are just confident and get down to it. Here is an example from a language called West Frisian. Not only do I not know it but I do not know where Frisia is and even if it still exists, although I guess West Frisian is (or was) spoken in the Western part of it.
If you just concentrate you will realize that this means Jagger is a British rock musician, actor, writer, composer and producer…something..as singer for the Rolling Stones.
If you concentrate more you can figure out that “mar” probably means “more” and “ferneamd” is a compound word consisting of “fer” which must mean “far” and “neamd” which means “named.
Far-named = famous. Jagger is most famous as singer for the rolling stones. And indeed he is.
Yes there is some help from context and from the similarity of West Frisian and English but the crucial ingredience is confidence!